Benedikt Stockebrand
Diplom-Informatiker
Kontakt/Impressum und Haftungshinweis
AGB
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IPv6 in Practice
A Unixer's Guide to the Next Generation Internet

Index


(*,G) wildcard route (multicast)    264
(S,G) source-specific route (multicast)    264
4in6 encapsulation    170–172
6Bone    28
6in4 encapsulation    150–169
6in6 encapsulation    172–176
      and dynamic routing    174–176
      interface configuration    173–174
      static route configuration    174
6over4 tunnel    176–177
6to4 tunnel    159–169
      (border) router    162–163
      between 6to4 sites    162–163
      default relay router    165–166
      host    162
      mk6to4 script    159
      operational issues    167–169
      public relay configuration    167
      public relay router    166–167
      relay router    163–167
      security    169
      tunnel host    160–162

A-bit (autoconfiguration)    228
A6 record (DNS)    76
AAAA record (DNS)    71
ABR (area border router, OSPF)    257
ACK flag (TCP)    99
address allocation policy    32–33
address, anycast    30–31
address architecture    21–31
address autoconfiguration, stateless   (see autoconfiguration)
address configuration    35–64
      persistent    38–40
      show    37–38
      static    35–40
      temporary    36–38
address, Ethernet    53–54
address family    3
address, global scope unicast    28
address, link-local unicast    26
address, loopback    25
address, multicast    29–30, 263
address notation    22–24
      base 85    23
      block    22
      compressed form    23
      double colons    23
      mixed    23
address, primary (IPv4)    25
address resolution protocol (ARP)    40
address, routable    24
address, routed    24
address scope    24
address selection    128, 220–223
      destination ordering    222
      label    221
      policy table    221–223
      precedence value    221
      source selection    221–222
      tuning    222–223
address, site-local unicast (deprecated)    27–28,  211–214
address size    21–22
address state (autoconfiguration)    51–52
address, unicast    25–29
address, unique-local unicast    27–28, 211–214
adjacency (OSPF)    251
admin-local multicast scope    29
advantages, IPv6 over IPv4    3
advertisement, solicited router (RA, autoconfiguration) 45
advertisement, unsolicited router (RA, autoconfiguration) 45, 53
advertising interval (autoconfiguration)    225–226
advertising router configuration (autoconfiguration) 46–49, 223–231
aggregated flows (QoS)    328
AH (authentication header, IPsec)    311
ALG   (see application level gateway)
alias, interface    25
all MLDv2-capable routers multicast group    269
all nodes link-local multicast group    30
all PIM routers multicast group    275
all routers link-local multicast group    30, 268
allow-query (DNS)    70
anchor (packet filter)    16
anti-spoofing (ingress) filter    56–57, 121–124, 343
any source multicast (ASM)    283
anycast address    30–31
anycast rendezvous point (multicast)    288
Apache (web server)    94–97
application layer    7
application level gateway (ALG)    129, 131–133
      DNS    131
      HTTP    132
      NTP    131–132
      SMTP    132
      syslog    132
architecture, address    21–31
architecture, routing    112–118
area (OSPF)    248, 256–259
area border router (ABR, OSPF)    257
area ID (OSPF)    257
ARP (address resolution protocol)    40
AS (autonomous system, BGP)    108, 235
ASM (any source multicast)    283
ASN (autonomous system number, BGP)    260, 341
assert message (PIM)    277
attack, ping bounce/smurf    5
authentication (IPsec)    311–312
authentication header (AH, IPsec)    311
authoritative name server (DNS)    350
autoconfiguration, stateless address (SAC)    43–55
      address state    51–52
      advertising interval    225–226
      advertising router configuration    46–49, 223–231
      autonomous flag (A-bit)    228
      concepts    44–46
      current hop limit    226
      DNS   (see DNS gap)
      expiring a prefix    230–231
      home agent flag    227
      host    44
      host configuration    49–51
      inconsistency (router advertisements)    116–117
      link MTU    226
      M-bit    228
      managed flag    227, 294
      node    44
      on-link flag (L-bit)    228
      other stateful configuration flag    227
      over PPP    205–206
      per-interface information    226–228
      preferred lifetime (pltime)    52
      prefix advertisement, inconsistent    116–117
      reachable time    227
      retransmit timer    227
      router    44
      router advertisement (RA)    52–53
           inconsistent    116–117
      router lifetime    52, 226
      router priority    226
      router solicitation (RS)    45, 52–53
      solicited router advertisement (RA)    45
      subnet prefix information    228–230
      tuning    223–231
      unsolicited router advertisement (RA)    45, 53
      valid lifetime (vltime)    52
automatic (6in4) tunnel    150–151, 156–159
automatic (6in4) tunnel, security    159
autonomous flag (autoconfiguration)    228
autonomous system (AS, BGP)    108, 235
autonomous system number (ASN, BGP)    260, 341

backbone area (OSPF)    248, 257
backbone, Internet    32
backup designated router (BDR, OSPF)    251
backup requirements    12
backup, full    12
base 85 encoding    23
base header    31–32
      hop limit field    32, 193, 196
      next header field    32
      payload length field    32
      traffic class (TC) field (QoS)    31, 328
      version field    31
bash shell    11
BDR (backup designated router, OSPF)    251
Berkeley Internet name domain (BIND) name server   (see DNS)
BGP (border gateway protocol)    33, 260–261
      autonomous system number (ASN)    260
      leaf autonomous system    341
      multiprotocol extensions    260
      packet filtering    262
      policy    261
      routing information base (RIB)    260
      speaker    260
bicycle, learning to ride a    10
bidirectional tunneling (MIPv6)    321
Bieringer, Dr Peter    V, X, 24, 74
BIND (Berkeley Internet name domain) name server   (see DNS)
binding (MIPv6)    321
binding update (MIPv6)    321
bitlabel/bitstring format (DNS)    74, 76
block (address notation)    22
boot scripts and packet filters    19
bootstrap message (PIM)    282
bootstrap router (BSR, PIM-SM)    280–281
border gateway protocol    33,    (see BGP)
Bourne shell    VIII
broadcast    29
broadcast, abolition of    4
browser (WWW)    94
BSR (bootstrap router, PIM-SM)    280–281
byte    21

CA (certificate authority, IPsec/X.509)    314
cache module (Apache 2)    95
cache, neighbor discovery    41–42
CandBSR (candidate bootstrap router, PIM-SM)    280
candidate bootstrap router (CandBSR, PIM-SM)    280
candidate rendezvous point (CandRP, PIM-SM)    278
candidate RP advertisement (PIM)    282
CandRP (candidate rendezvous point, PIM-SM)    278
care-of address (CoA, MIPv6)    320
catman command    12
certificate authority (CA, IPsec/X.509)    314
CGI (common gateway interface) script    95
chain (packet filter)    16
channel (SSM)    284
checklist    VIII
CIDR (classless inter-domain routing)    33, 103
classless inter-domain routing (CIDR)    33, 103
cloud, network    IX
CN (correspondent node, MIPv6)    320
CoA (care-of address, MIPv6)    320
colons, double (address notation)    23
comments, request for (RFC)    34
common gateway interface (CGI) script    95
compatible address (automatic tunnel)    158
compressed form (address notation)    23
configuration mode (Quagga VTY)    239
configuration, address    35–64
configuration, kernel    13–15
configuration, persistent    38–40
configuration, temporary    36–38
configured (6in4) tunnel    150–159
configured (6in4) tunnel, security    159
connection tracking filter (packet filter)    16, 55
consecutive colons (address notation)    23
core, Internet    32
correspondent node (CN, MIPv6)    320
cost metric (OSPF)    255–256
current hop limit (autoconfiguration)    226

DAD (duplicate address detection)    42–43
datagram (UDP)    7
DDNS (dynamic DNS updates)    301–308
Debian Sarge    VI
debugging
      commands    36–38, 86–88
      dual stacks    128
      kernel variables    15–16
      packet sniffer    12
dedicated router hardware    VI
Deepspace6 project    99
default (configured) tunnel    151
default free zone    32, 261, 341
delay (ND state)    42
denial of service    5
deprecated address (autoconfiguration)    52
designated router (DR, OSPF)    250
designated router (DR, PIM-SM)    282
destination address ordering    222
destination cache (ICMPv6 redirect)    104
destination NAT (DNAT)    191
DHCP server, rogue    44
DHCP without the pain (autoconfiguration)    43
DHCP, problems with    43–44
dhcp6 (DHCPv6, FreeBSD)    290
DHCPv6 (dynamic host configuration protocol/IPv6) 289–298, 300–301
      address management    294
      dhcp6 (FreeBSD)    290
      Dibbler (Linux)    289
      DNS updates    300–301
      dry run    292
      installation    289–291
      interoperability    297
      multicast    296–298
      NIS/NIS+ configuration    293–294
      NTP configuration    293–294
      packet filter    298
      relay    295–298
      resolver configuration    291–293
      security    297–298, 300–301
      SIP configuration    293–294
      stateless    291–294
diagram, network    IX
diagram, protocol flow    IX
diameter, network    111
Dibbler (DHCPv6, Linux)    289
differences, IPv4 vs. IPv6    3
differentiated services (DiffServ, QoS)    328–329
DiffServ (differentiated services, QoS)    328–329
dig command
      -x option    74, 76
      ANY option    72, 356
      AXFR option    73, 356
disaster recovery, successful    12
DNAME record (DNS)    76
DNAT (destination NAT)    191
DNS (domain name system)    7, 65–79, 131, 349–357
      A6 record    76
      AAAA record    71
      allow-query    70
      authoritative name server    350
      autoconfiguration   (see DNS gap)
      BIND
           configuration    351–356
           installation    350–351
           operation    352–353, 355–356
           pitfalls    356–357
      bitlabel/bitstring format    74, 76
      crash course    349–357
      DHCPv6 configuration    291–293
      DNAME record    76
      DNSSEC (DNS security)    301
      domain name    349
      dual stacking    127–128
      dynamic updates (DDNS)    301–308
      fake root zone    70–73
      forward query    349
      forward zone    71–73, 353–354
      forwarder    70, 131, 350
      forwarder configuration    70–71, 352
      fully qualified domain name (FQDN)    350
      gap    299–308
           configuration    302–305
           future work    307–308
           implementation    301–308
           non-solutions    299–301
           operation    304–307
           problem statement    299
           security    305–306
           solution    301–308
      glue record    356
      in-addr.arpa. pseudo-domain    350
      ip6.arpa. pseudo-domain    73, 76
      ip6.int. pseudo-domain    76
      legacies    75–77
      listen-on-v6    70
      master    71–74, 350
      naming conventions    65–66
      nibble format (PTR record)    73, 76
      NS record    354
      $ORIGIN statement    74
      primary name server    71–74, 350
      PTR record    73, 354–355
      "quad A" record    71
      record class    349
      record type    349
      resolver configuration    69–70
      resolver library    349
      resource record (RR)    349
      reverse lookup    68, 349
      reverse zone    73–74, 354–355
      root domain    349
      second-level domain    349
      secondary name server    75, 350, 355
      security (DNSSEC)    301
      slave    75, 350
      SOA (start of authority) record    353
      time to live (TTL)    349
      top-level domain    349
      TSIG (transaction signature, dynamic DNS)    301,  303
      TTL (time to live)    349
      unqualified domain name    350
      zone delegation    350, 356
DNSSEC (DNS security)    301
documentation prefix    10
Doering, Gert    X
domain name (DNS)    349
domain name system   (see DNS)
don't fragment flag (IPv4)    120, 193
double colons (address notation)    23
downstream interface (multicast)    264
DR (designated router, OSPF)    250
DR (designated router, PIM-SM)    282
DR-other (OSPF)    251
dual stacks    127–129
      debugging    128
      DNS    127–128
      packet filter    129–130
      servers    128–129
duplicate address (autoconfiguration)    51
duplicate address detection (DAD)    42–43
dynamic and static routing, unicast    118–119
dynamic DNS updates (DDNS)    301–308
dynamic host configuration protocol   (see DHCPv6)
dynamic routing    103–106, 108–124, 233–262
      across PPP links    204–205
      packet filter    123–124, 262
      security    117–118
      through 6in6 tunnels    174–176
dynamically changing interface IDs    216–220

e-mail    92–93
echo service (inetd)    82–85
ecmh daemon (multicast proxy)    272
EGP (exterior gateway protocol)    235
EIGRP (enhanced interior gateway protocol)    261
embedded rendezvous point (multicast)    284–285
emergency renumbering    339
enable(d) mode (Quagga VTY)    239
encapsulating security payload (ESP, IPsec)    311
encapsulation    149–180
encoding, base 85    23
encryption (IPsec)    311–312
end-to-end connectivity    4
enhanced interior gateway protocol (EIGRP)    261
entry point (tunnel)    144
Epiphany (web browser)    94
equal-cost multipath routing (OSPF)    256
errata list, online    VII
ESP (encapsulating security payload, IPsec)    311
/etc/hosts    67–68
/etc/inet/ipnodes    67–68
/etc/inetd.conf (inetd)    83
/etc/nsswitch.conf    69–70
/etc/xinetd.d (xinetd)    83
Ethereal (packet sniffer)    12
Ethernet    7, 31
      address    53–54
      address, global bit    53
      frame type    31
      IEEE EUI-64 format    54
      jumbo frame    196
      multicast    267
      PPP over (PPPoE)    207
EUI-64 format, IEEE    54
exim (MTA)    92–93
exit point (tunnel)    144
expiring a prefix (autoconfiguration)    230–231
extended logging    12
exterior gateway protocol (EGP)    235

faith interface (FreeBSD, protocol translation) 136–138
fake root zone (DNS)    70–73
family, address/protocol    3
family, Internet protocol    3
fast handover (MIPv6)    323
feeling of security, treacherous (NAT)    10
ffproxy (web proxy)    95–97
filter, anti-spoofing/ingress    56–57, 121–124, 343
Firefox (web browser)    94
first match semantic (packet filter)    16
flag day    8
flag nibble (multicast)    29, 263
flooding (OSPF)    247
flooding (PIM-DM)    275
flow (QoS)    328
flow aggregation (QoS)    328
flow label (QoS, base header)    31, 328
flow, protocol    IX
form, compressed (address notation)    23
forward query (DNS)    349
forward zone (DNS)    71–73, 353–354
forwarder (DNS)    70, 131, 350
forwarder configuration (DNS)    70–71, 352
forwarding rules (packet filter)    122–123
FQDN (fully qualified domain name, DNS)    350
fragmentation, packets    120
frame type, Ethernet    31
FreeBSD 6.1    VI
frustration    V
full backup    12
fully qualified domain name (FQDN, DNS)    350

gearbox    VI
generic routing encapsulation (GRE) tunnel    181–182,  187
getaddrinfo(3) library function    220
gif<n> interface (FreeBSD)    153, 170,  173
global bit (Ethernet Address)    53
global multicast scope    29
global routing prefix    28
global scope    24
global scope unicast address    28
glue record (DNS)    356
grace period (renumbering)    336–339
graft acknowledgment message (PIM)    276
graft message (PIM)    276
GRE (generic routing encapsulation) tunnel    181–182,  187
gre<n> interface (FreeBSD)    181, 182
great switchover    8
group (multicast)    30, 263
group ID (multicast)    30, 263
group member (multicast)    264

HA (home agent, MIPv6)    320
Hagen, Silvia    V, X
hard renumbering    339
hardware requirements    10–11
hardware, dedicated router    VI
header checksum (IPv4 header)    32
header, base    31–32
headers, IPv6    31–32
hello interval (OSPF)    253
hello message (PIM)    275
hello packet (OSPF)    253
Hexago tunnel service provider    9, 190
hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6)    323
HMIPv6 (hierarchical mobile IPv6)    323
HN (home network, MIPv6)    319
HoA (home address, MIPv6)    319
hold time (PIM)    275
home address (HoA, MIPv6)    319
home agent (HA, MIPv6)    320
home agent flag (autoconfiguration)    227
home link (MIPv6)    319
home network (HN, MIPv6)    319
hop limit field (base header)    32, 193, 196
hop limit, current (autoconfiguration)    226
hop-by-hop option header    267
host    44
host configuration (autoconfiguration)    49–51
HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol)    93–97
HTTP proxy    132
httpd (Apache 2)    94–97
HTTPS (secure hypertext transfer protocol)    93–97
hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)    93–97

IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)    29, 34,  359
ICMP router discovery (IPv4)    103
ICMPv6 packet too big    120
ICMPv6 packets, essential    57
ICMPv6 redirect    103–106
ICMPv6 redirect, packet filter    123
ICMPv6 redirect, performance    115–116
ID, interface    25
ID, scope    27
ID, subnet    28
identifier, interface    25
identifier, scope    27
identifier, subnet    28
IEEE EUI-64 format    54
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)    34
ifconfig command    36
IGP (interior gateway protocol)    235
IKE (Internet key exchange protocol, IPsec)    313–314
implementations (QoS)    329
in-addr.arpa. pseudo-domain (DNS)    350
in.ndpd daemon (Solaris)    48, 223–231
in.ripngd daemon (Solaris)    109–111
incomplete (ND state)    42
inconsistency (router advertisements)    116–117
index, online    VII
index, whatis    11
index, zone (was: scope ID)    27
INET address/protocol family    3
INET6 address/protocol family    3
inetadm command (Solaris)    84–85
inetd daemon    82–85
inetd super daemon    82–85
inetd, echo service    82–85
ingress (anti-spoofing) filter    56–57, 121–124, 343
inner protocol (tunnel)    143
installation requirements    11–12
instances, multiple (OSPF)    259
integrated services (IntServ, QoS)    328–329
inter-area route (OSPF)    258
interface alias    25
interface configuration
      show    37–38
interface configuration (Quagga)    240–241
interface ID    25
interface ID, from Ethernet address    53–54
interface identifier    25
interface route    156
interface, logical    25
interface, loopback    25
interface, physical    25
interface, virtual    25
interface-local multicast scope    29
interior gateway protocol (IGP)    235
intermediate system to intermediate system intra-domain routing exchange protocol (IS-IS) 261
Internet    3
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)    29, 34,  359
Internet backbone/core    32
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)    34
Internet key exchange protocol (IKE, IPsec)    313–314
Internet protocol family    3
Internet protocol, version 4 (IPv4)    3
Internet protocol, version 6 (IPv6)    3
Internet RFC (request for comments)    34
Internet security association and key management protocol (ISAKMP, IPsec) 314
Internet4    3
Internet6    3
interoperation    127–140
interoperation concepts    127–130
interoperation problems    128
intra-area route (OSPF)    252
intra-site automatic tunnel addressing protocol (ISATAP) 177
IntServ (integrated services, QoS)    328–329
invalid address (autoconfiguration)    52
IP (Internet protocol)    3
ip command (Linux)    11, 36, 106–108, 264
IP multipathing (IPMP, Solaris)    115
IP telephony    6
IP-in-IP encapsulation    149–180
IP-in-IP tunnel    145
ip.6to4tun<n> interface (Solaris)    161
ip.atun0 interface (Solaris)    158
ip.tun<n> interface (Solaris)    154
ip6.arpa. pseudo-domain (DNS)    73, 76
ip6.int. pseudo-domain (DNS)    76
ip6.tun<n> interface (Solaris)    171,  173
ip6fw (packet filter, FreeBSD)    16
ip6tables (packet filter, Linux)    16
IPMP (IP multipathing, Solaris)    115
IPsec    311–317
      authentication    311–312
      authentication header (AH)    311
      certificate authority (CA)    314
      concepts    311–315
      encapsulating security payload (ESP)    311
      encryption    311–312
      implementation problems    314
      implementations    316–317
      Internet key exchange protocol (IKE)    313–314
      ISAKMP (Internet security association and key management protocol) 314
      limitations    315–316
      open problems    315–317
      packet filter    317
      references    314–315
      security association (SA)    313
      security association database (SAD)    313
      security parameter index (SPI)    313
      security policy database (SPD)    312
      transport mode    312
      tunnel mode    312
      X.509 certificate    314
iptables (packet filter, Linux)    16
IPv4 (Internet protocol, version 4)    3
IPv4 header
      checksum field    32
      protocol header    32
      time to live (TTL) field    32, 193, 196
      type of service (TOS)    31
IPv4-compatible address (automatic tunnel)    158
IPv4-in-IPv6 (4in6) encapsulation    170–172
IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses    214–216
IPv6 (Internet protocol, version 6)    3
IPv6 control protocol (IPV6CP, PPP)    202
IPv6 headers    31–32
IPv6 support, kernel    13–16
IPv6-in-IPv4 (6in4) encapsulation    150–169
IPv6-in-IPv6 (6in6) encapsulation   (see 6in6 encapsulation)
IPv6-in-UDP-in-IPv4 tunnel    190
IPv6-mapped IPv6 address    86
ipv6calc command    24, 74
IPV6CP (IPv6 control protocol, PPP)    202
IS-IS (intermediate system to intermediate system intra-domain routing exchange protocol) 261
ISAKMP (Internet security association and key management protocol, IPsec) 314
ISATAP (intra-site automatic tunnel addressing protocol) 177
ISP change (renumbering)    339–340
iX magazine    X

jitter (QoS)    329
JOIN IPv6 project    X
join message (PIM)    283
join/prune message (PIM)    275
jumbo frame (Ethernet)    196

KAME project (BSD)    VI
kernel configuration    13–15
kernel IPv6 support    11, 13–16
kernel PPP    199
kernel variables    15–16
knee-jerk reflex (PI addresses)    33
Konqueror (web browser)    94
Krapohl, Reiner    X

L-bit (autoconfiguration)    228
label (address selection)    221
last match semantic (packet filter)    16
LCP (link control protocol, PPP)    202
leaf autonomous system (BGP)    341
learning to ride a bicycle    10
legacies (DNS)    75–77
lifetime, preferred (pltime, autoconfiguration    52
lifetime, router (autoconfiguration)    52, 226
lifetime, valid (vltime, autoconfiguration    52
link    24, 35
link (OSPF)    247
link control protocol (LCP, PPP)    202
link layer    7
link MTU (autoconfiguration)    226
link state (OSPF)    247
link state advertisement (LSA, OSPF)    247, 253
link state ID (OSPF)    250
link, virtual (OSPF)    259
link-layer multicast    267
link-local multicast scope    29
link-local scope    24
link-local unicast address    26
Links (web browser)    94
listen-on-v6 (DNS)    70
listener (multicast)    263
listener done (multicast)    268
listener query (multicast)    273
listener report (multicast)    267
logger command    92
logging, extended    12
logical interface    25
loop, tunnel    193–195
loopback address    25
loopback interface    25
LSA (link state advertisement, OSPF)    247, 253
lsof command (Linux)    86
Lynx (web browser)    94

M-bit (autoconfiguration)    228
Mackerras, Paul    199
MADCAP (multicast address dynamic client allocation protocol) 286
mail relay    132
mail transfer agent (MTA)    92–93
man pages    11
managed flag (autoconfiguration)    227, 294
MAP (mobile anchor point, MIPv6)    323
mapped addresses    214–216
Massar, Jeroen    X, 215
master (DNS)    71–74, 350
maximum response delay (MLD)    268, 274
maximum transmission unit (MTU)    120, 195–196, 226
mcast-tools package    271
mcjoin command    266
meltdown, network    193
metric type (OSPF)    259
Microsoft Windows    VI
migration, soft    8
MIPv6   (see mobile IPv6)
Miredo project (Teredo)    182
mixed (address) notation    23
mk6to4 script    159
MLD (multicast listener discovery)    266–271, 273–275
      listener done    268
      listener query    273
      listener report    267
      maximum response delay    268, 274
      querier    274
      source filtering    270
      versions (MLDv1/v2)    266–267
MN (mobile node, MIPv6)    319
mobile anchor point (MAP, MIPv6)    323
mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)    319–326
      bidirectional tunneling    321
      binding    321
      binding update    321
      care-of address (CoA)    320
      concepts    319–323
      correspondent node (CN)    320
      fast handover    323
      hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6)    323
      home address (HoA)    319
      home agent (HA)    320
      home link    319
      home network (HN)    319
      implementations    324
      insecurity    324–325
           correspondent node    325
           host security    324
           loose source routing    325
           packet filter    325
           privacy    324–325
           routing header    325
      mobile anchor point (MAP)    323
      mobile node (MN)    319
      mobile router    322
      network mobility (NEMO)    322–323
      open problems    323–325
      references    325–326
      return routability test    322
      route optimization (RO)    321–322
      security   (see mobile IPv6, insecurity)
      type 2 routing header    321
mobile node (MN, MIPv6)    319
mobile router (MIPv6)    322
mountd (NFS)    98
Mozilla (web browser)    94
mrd6 daemon (PIM-SM, Linux)    278
MSDP (multicast source discovery protocol)    288
MTA (mail transfer agent)    92–93
MTU (maximum transmission unit)    120, 195–196, 226
MTU, link (autoconfiguration)    226
multi-homed host    244, 346–347
multi-homed network    341–346
      with redundant tunnels    344–346
      without redundant links    343–344
multicast    29–30, 263–288
      address    29–30, 263
      advanced topics    288
      all MLDv2-capable routers group    269
      all nodes link-local group    30
      all routers link-local group    30, 268
      allocation    285–286
      any source (ASM)    283
      anycast rendezvous point    288
      channel (SSM)    284
      diagnostics    264–266
      downstream interface    264
      ecmh daemon    272
      embedded rendezvous point    284–285
      Ethernet    267
      flag nibble    29, 263
      group    30, 263
      group ID    30, 263
      group member    264
      link-layer    267
      listener    263
      listener query    273
      mcjoin command    266
      multicast listener discovery   (see MLD)
      operation    286–287
      packet filter    287–288
      permanent address    29
      ping6 command (Linux)    266
      receiver    264
      references    288
      routing   (see PIM, PIM-DM and PIM-SM)
      routing table    264
      scope    29
      scope nibble    29, 263
      sender    264
      solicited-node group    41
      source discovery protocol (MSDP)    288
      source-specific (SSM)    283–284
      source-specific route (S,G)    264
      terminology    263–264
      transient address    29
      unicast-prefix-based    285–286
      upstream interface    264
      VMware problems    272
      wildcard route (*,G)    264
multicast address dynamic client allocation protocol (MADCAP) 286
multiple instances (OSPF)    259
multiprotocol extensions (BGP)    260

NA (neighbor advertisement)    40–41
name server   (see DNS)
naming conventions (DNS)    65–66
NAT (network address translation)    4, 10, 135
NAT and tunnels    190–193
NAT-PT (network address translation/protocol translation) 136
ND (neighbor discovery)    40–43
ndd command (Solaris)    15
neighbor advertisement (NA)    40–41
neighbor discovery (ND)    40–43
neighbor discovery cache    41–42
neighbor discovery states    41–42
neighbor solicitation (NS)    40–41
neighbor unreachability detection (NUD)    41–42
NEMO (network mobility, MIPv6)    322–323
nested tunnels    146, 193–195
netcat command    87, 88
netcat6 command (Linux)    87
netstat command    11, 86–87, 264–265
network address translation (NAT)    4, 10, 135
network address translation/protocol translation (NAT-PT) 136
network cloud    IX
network diagram    IX
network diameter    111
network file system (NFS)    97–98
network information service (NIS/NIS+) and DHCPv6 293–294
network layer    7
network meltdown    193
network mobility (NEMO, MIPv6)    322–323
network redundancy    113–115
network time protocol   (see NTP)
network, private    24
next header field (base header)    32
NFS (network file system)    97–98
nibble (half-byte)    22
nibble format (DNS PTR record)    73, 76
NIS/NIS+ (network information service) and DHCPv6 293–294
nmap command    87
node    44
non-existent interface (Quagga)    235
not so stubby area (NSSA, OSPF)    259
notation, address    22–24
notation, mixed address    23
notation, prefix    23
NS (neighbor solicitation)    40–41
NS record (DNS)    354
NSSA (not so stubby area, OSPF)    259
NTP (network time protocol)    89–91
      DHCPv6 configuration    293–294
      proxy    131–132
      stratum    131
ntpd daemon    89–91
ntpdc command    90
ntpq command    90
NUD (neighbor unreachability detection)    41–42

obtaining a prefix    9–10
octet    21
off-link address    45
Ohno, Toshiharu    199
on-link flag (autoconfiguration)    228
online errata list    VII
online index    VII
online supplement    VII
online update    VI
open shortest path first   (see OSPF)
OpenSSH    88–89
OpenVPN    183–187
organization-local multicast scope    29
$ORIGIN statement (DNS)    74
OSPF (open shortest path first)    246–260
      adjacency    251
      area    256–259
      area border router (ABR)    257
      area ID    257
      backbone area    257
      backup designated router (BDR)    251
      basic concepts    247
      cost metric    255–256
      designated router (DR)    250
      DR-other    251
      equal-cost multipath routing    256
      features and limitations    246–247
      flooding    247
      hello interval    253
      hello packet    253
      inter-area route    258
      intra-area route    252
      link    247
      link state    247
      link state advertisement (LSA)    247, 253
      link state ID    250
      metric type    259
      multiple instances    259
      not so stubby area (NSSA)    259
      operational issues    259–260
      packet filtering    262
      priority (DR)    251
      router dead interval    253
      router ID    248
      scalability    256–259
      shortest path first (SPF) tree    251
      status information    250–252
      stub area    259
      timing parameters    252–254
      virtual link    259
      with Quagga    247–260
ospf6d daemon (Quagga)    247
OSPFv3   (see OSPF)
other stateful configuration flag (autoconfiguration) 227
outer protocol (tunnel)    143
overview of IPv6    3–8

packet filter    VIII
      anchor    16
      application level gateway (ALG)    133
      BGP    262
      boot scripts    19
      chain    16
      connection tracking filter    16, 55
      DHCPv6    298
      dual stack    129–130
      dynamic routing    123–124, 262
      first match semantic    16
      forwarding rules    122–123
      ICMPv6 redirect    123
      ingress filter    56–57, 121–124, 343
      ip6fw (FreeBSD)    16
      ip6tables (Linux)    16
      IPsec    317
      last match semantic    16
      MIPv6    325
      multicast    287–288
      OSPF    262
      parentheses (pf/FreeBSD)    18, 56,  60
      performance    101–102
      pf (FreeBSD)    17
      pfctl command (FreeBSD)    18
      PPP and    207
      protocol translation    140
      quick option    16
      REJECT (Linux/ip6tables) 18
      rewriting filter    55
      RIPng    262
      routing    120–124, 262
      RPC (remote procedure call)    99
      sanitizing    56
      source validation    56–57, 121–124, 343
      stateful filter    16, 55
      stateless filter    55
      syslog    99
      TCP/UDP    99–102
      tunnels and    177–180, 187
packet redirection    191
packet sniffer    12
packet too big (ICMPv6)    120
pain, DHCP without the (autoconfiguration)    43
parentheses (pf/FreeBSD)    18, 56, 60
passive interface (RIPng/Quagga)    243
path MTU (PMTU)    120
path MTU (PMTU) discovery    120
payload length field (base header)    32
per-interface information (autoconfiguration)    226–228
performance
      ICMPv6 redirect    115–116
      packet filter    101–102
      router    115
permanent multicast address    29
persistent address configuration    38–40
Personal Pet Unix    VII
pf (packet filter, FreeBSD)    17
pfctl command (FreeBSD)    18
PhD thesis    VI
physical interface    25
PI (provider-independent) addresses    5, 33, 341–342
PIM (protocol independent multicast)    271–273,  275–288
      all PIM routers multicast group    275
      assert message    277
      bootstrap message    282
      candidate RP advertisement    282
      graft acknowledgment message    276
      graft message    276
      hello message    275
      hold time    275
      join message    283
      join/prune message    275
      mcast-tools package    271
      operation    286–287
      prune message    283
      register message    282
      register stop message    282
      reverse path forwarding (RPF) check    277
PIM-DM (protocol independent multicast—dense mode) 271–277
      advantages and limitations    277
      filter configuration    272–273
      flooding    275
      installation    271–272
      mcast-tools package    271
      operation    286–287
      pim6dd daemon    271–273
      protocol details    275–277
PIM-SM (protocol independent multicast—sparse mode) 278–285
      (shared) rendezvous point tree (RP-tree)    283
      bootstrap router (BSR)    280–281
      candidate bootstrap router (CandBSR)    280
      candidate rendezvous point (CandRP)    278
      designated router (DR)    282
      installation    278–280
      mcast-tools package    271
      mrd6 daemon    278
      operation    281, 286–287
      pim6sd daemon    278
      protocol details    282–283
      rendezvous point (RP)    278
      shortest path tree (SP-tree)    283
      source-based forwarding tree (SP-tree)    283
pim6dd daemon (PIM-DM)    271–273
pim6sd daemon (PIM-SM)    278
ping bounce attack    5
ping/ping6 command    11
ping6 command (Linux)    266
plan, network    IX
pltime (preferred lifetime, autoconfiguration)    52
PMTU (path MTU)    120
point-to-point protocol   (see PPP)
poisoned reverse (RIPng)    112
policy, address allocation    32–33
port number (transport layer)    7
Postfix (MTA)    93
PPP (point-to-point protocol)    199–207
      address and route configuration    202–204
      autoconfiguation    205–206
      basic configuration    200–202
      dynamic routing across    204–205
      implementations    199
      IPv6 control protocol (IPV6CP)    202
      kernel PPP implementation    199
      link control protocol (LCP)    202
      multiple interfaces    206–207
      operational issues    206–207
      over Ethernet (PPPoE)    207
      packet filter considerations    207
      ppp daemon    199
      pppd daemon    199
      userland PPP implementation    199
precautions, security    12–13
precedence value (address selection)    221
preferred address (autoconfiguration)    52
preferred lifetime (pltime, autoconfiguration)    52
prefix advertisement, inconsistent    116–117
prefix deployment    336–338
prefix expiration (autoconfiguration)    230–231
prefix information (autoconfiguration)    228–230
prefix notation    23
prefix revocation    338–339
prefix, documentation    10
prefix, global routing    28
prefix, obtaining a    9–10
prefix, subnet    25
preparations    9–19
primary address (IPv4)    25
primary name server (DNS)    71–74, 350
priority, router (autoconfiguration)    226
privacy extensions    216–220
private network    24
privileged mode (Quagga VTY)    239
probe (ND state)    42
problems with DHCP    43–44
protocol family    3
protocol flow diagram    IX
protocol header (IPv4 header)    32
protocol independent multicast   (see PIM)
protocol independent multicast—dense mode   (see PIM-DM)
protocol independent multicast—sparse mode   (see PIM-SM)
protocol translation    135–140
      faith interface (FreeBSD)    136–138
      operational issues    139–140
      packet filter considerations    140
      trick-or-treat daemon (totd)    137–140
provider-independent (PI) addresses    5, 33, 341–342
proxy    129
proxy module (Apache 2)    95
proxy, web    95–97
prune message (PIM)    283
PTR record (DNS)    73
pTRTd (Linux)    136

qmail (MTA)    93
QoS   (see quality of service)
"quad A" record (DNS)    71
Quagga (routing framework)    109–111, 233–262
      configuration mode (VTY)    239
      debugging    110, 241–242
      enable(d) mode (VTY)    239
      features    233–235
      installation    235–239
      interface configuration    240–241
      non-existent interface    235
      OSPF
           area    256–259
           area support    257–259
           configuration    247–256
           status information    250–252
           timing parameters    252–254
      ospf6d daemon    247
      password management    261
      privileged mode (VTY)    239
      RIPng    109–111, 242–246
           access list    244
           enabling    242–243
           metric tuning    244–245
           passive interface    243
           restricting    243–244
           route aggregation    245
           timing parameters    245–246
      ripngd daemon    109–111
      router advertisement    241
      running configuration    240
      startup configuration    240
      static route configuration    241
      supported protocols    235
      unprivileged mode (VTY)    239
      virtual terminal (VTY)    234, 239–240
      vtysh command shell    261
      watchquagga daemon    261
      zebra daemon    109–111, 234
quality of service (QoS)    327–331
      aggregated flows    328
      concepts    327–329
      differentiated services (DiffServ)    328–329
      flow    328
      flow aggregation    328
      flow label (base header)    31, 328
      implementations    328, 329
      integrated services (IntServ)    328–329
      jitter    329
      misunderstandings    330–331
      money    330
      politics    330
      references    331
      resource reservation protocol (RSVP)    328
      technical assessment    329
      traffic class (TC) field (base header)    31, 328
      traffic shaping    328–329
querier (MLD)    274
quick option (packet filter)    16

RA (router advertisement, autoconfiguration)    45,  52–53, 116–117
radvd daemon (Linux)    47, 223–231
RAM (random access memory)    11
reachable (ND state)    42
reachable time (autoconfiguration)    227
realtime capabilities   (see quality of service)
receiver (multicast)    264
record class (DNS)    349
record type (DNS)    349
recovery, successful disaster    12
redirect, ICMPv6    103–106
redundancy, network    113–115
redundant uplink   (see multi-homed network)
reflex, knee-jerk (PI addresses)    33
register message (PIM)    282
register stop message (PIM)    282
REJECT (Linux/ip6tables) 18
remote procedure call (RPC)    97
rendezvous point (RP, PIM-SM)    278
rendezvous point tree (RP-tree, PIM-SM)    283
renumbering procedures    335–340
      grace period    336–339
      hard/emergency renumbering    339
      ISP change    339–340
      prefix deployment    336–338
      prefix revocation    338–339
      preparations    335–336
      soft renumbering    336–339
renumbering protocol    231
request for comments (RFC)    34
requirements
      backup    12
      disaster recovery    12
      hardware    10–11
      installation    11–12
resolver configuration (DHCPv6)    291–293
resolver configuration (DNS)    69–70
resolver library (DNS)    349
resource record (RR, DNS)    349
resource reservation protocol (RSVP, QoS)    328
retransmit timer (autoconfiguration)    227
return routability test (MIPv6)    322
reverse lookup (DNS)    68, 349
reverse NAT    191
reverse path forwarding (RPF) check (PIM)    277
reverse zone (DNS)    73–74, 354–355
rewriting filter (packet filter)    55
RFC (request for comments)    34
RIB (routing information base, BGP)    260
ride a bicycle, learning to    10
RIP (routing information protocol)    108
RIPng (routing information protocol/IPv6)    108–124
      packet filtering    262
      poisoned reverse    112
      protocol details    111–112
      split horizon    112
      testing and debugging    110–111
      triggered update    112
      unsolicited response    112
      with Quagga    109–111, 242–246
ripngd daemon (Quagga)    109–111, 242–246
RO (route optimization, MIPv6)    321–322
road warrior problem    216
roaming    5
rogue DHCP server    44
root domain (DNS)    349
routable address    24
route command    11, 106–108
route optimization (RO, MIPv6)    321–322
route, interface    156
route6d daemon (FreeBSD)    109–111
routeadm command (Solaris)    48, 109–111,  238
routed address    24
router    44
router advertisement (RA)
      inconsistent    116–117
      with Quagga    241
router advertisement (RA, autoconfiguration)    45,  52–53, 116–117
router alert (hop-by-hop option)    268
router configuration (autoconfiguration)    46–49,  223–231
router dead interval (OSPF)    253
router hardware, dedicated    VI
router ID (OSPF)    248
router lifetime (autoconfiguration)    52, 226
router performance    115
router priority (autoconfiguration)    226
router renumbering protocol    231
router solicitation (RS, autoconfiguration)    45, 52–53
router, single-legged    110
routing
      architecture    112–118
      asymmetric    112
      basic considerations    112–113
      dynamic and static    118–119
      static and dynamic    118–119
      static or dynamic?    113
      through tunnel    156–158
      unicast    103–124
routing header, type 2 (MIPv6)    321
routing information base (RIB, BGP)    260
routing information protocol (RIP)    108
routing prefix, global    28
routing table (multicast)    264
RP (rendezvous point, PIM-SM)    278
RP-tree (shared rendezvous point tree, PIM-SM)    283
RPC (remote procedure call)    97
RPC (remote procedure call) and packet filter    99
rpcbind (RPC daemon)    97
rpcinfo command    98
RPF (reverse path forwarding) check (PIM)    277
RR (resource record, DNS)    349
RS (router solicitation, autoconfiguration)    45, 52–53
RSVP (resource reservation protocol, QoS)    328
rtadvd daemon (FreeBSD)    48, 223–231
rtsol (FreeBSD)    50, 54
running configuration (Quagga)    240

SA (security association, IPsec)    313
SAC (stateless address autoconfiguration)   (see autoconfiguration)
SAD (security association database, IPsec)    313
SADB (security association database, IPsec)    313
sales pitch    3
sanitizing (packet filter)    56
Sarge, Debian    VI
Schmidt, Dr Frank    X
scope
      multicast    29
      unicast    24
scope ID    27
scope nibble (multicast)    29, 263
scp command    89
screen shot    VIII
second-level domain (DNS)    349
secondary name server (DNS)    75, 350, 355
secure hypertext transfer protocol (HTTPS)    93–97
secure shell (OpenSSH)    88–89
secure socket layer (SSL)    93
secure tunnel architectures    178–179
security
      automatic tunnel    159
      configured tunnel    159
      dynamic routing    117–118
      precautions    12–13
security association (SA, IPsec)    313
security association database (SAD, IPsec)    313
security parameter index (SPI, IPsec)    313
security policy database (SPD, IPsec)    312
security, treacherous feeling of (NAT)    10
semantic, first match (packet filter)    16
semantic, last match (packet filter)    16
sender (multicast)    264
sendmail (MTA)    92–93
server, dual-stacked    128–129
service, IPv6-enabled    81–82, 98–99
session initiation protocol (SIP) and DHCPv6    293–294
setting up a test environment    10–12
share command (Solaris)    98
shared rendezvous point tree (RP-tree, PIM-SM)    283
shell transcript    VIII
shell, bash    11
shell, Bourne    VIII
shortest path first (SPF) tree (OSPF)    251
shortest path tree (SP-tree, PIM-SM)    283
show address configuration    37–38
show interface configuration    37–38
showmount command    98
SIIT (stateless IP/ICMP translation)    136
simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP)    92–93
single-legged router    110
SIP (session initiation protocol) and DHCPv6    293–294
sit<n> interface (Linux)    160
sit<n> interface (Linux, tunnel)    152
sit0 interface (Linux)    158
site, definition of    212
site-local multicast scope    29
site-local scope    24, 27
site-local unicast addresses (deprecated)    27–28,  211–214
site-scoped addresses    211–214
SixXS tunnel service provider    9, 190
size, address    21–22
slave (DNS)    75, 350
SMTP (simple mail transfer protocol)    92–93
SMTP relay    132
smurf attack    5
sniffer, packet    12
snoop (packet sniffer)    12
SOA (start of authority) record (DNS)    353
sockstat command (FreeBSD)    87
soft migration    8
soft renumbering    336–339
software, IPv6-enabled    81–82, 98–99
Solaris 10    VI
solicited router advertisement (RA, autoconfiguration) 45
solicited-node multicast group    41
source address selection    221–222
source validation (packet filter)    56–57, 121–124,  343
source-based-forwarding tree (SP-tree, PIM-SM)    283
source-specific multicast (SSM)    283–284
source-specific route (S,G) (multicast)    264
SP-tree (shortest path tree, PIM-SM)    283
SPD (security policy database, IPsec)    312
SPF (shortest path first) tree (OSPF)    251
SPI (security parameter index, IPsec)    313
split horizon (RIPng)    112
spoofing (ingress) filter    56–57, 121–124, 343
Squid (web proxy)    95
ssh command    88–89
sshd daemon    88–89
SSL (secure socket layer)    93
SSM (source-specific multicast)    283–284
stack, TCP/IP    6
stale (ND state)    42
standard (RFC)    34
startup configuration (Quagga)    240
state, address (autoconfiguration)    51–52
state, neighbor discovery    41–42
stateful filter (packet filter)    16, 55
stateless (address) autoconfiguration   (see autoconfiguration)
stateless DHCP   (see DHCPv6)
stateless filter (packet filter)    55
stateless IP/ICMP translation (SIIT)    136
static address configuration    35–40
static and dynamic routing, unicast    118–119
static route configuration (Quagga)    241
static route configuration (Solaris)    108
static routing, unicast    106–108, 118–119, 121–123
Stevens, W. Richard    6
stf0 interface (FreeBSD)    161
stratum (NTP)    131
stub area (OSPF)    259
subinterface    25
subnet ID    28
subnet prefix    25
subnet prefix information (autoconfiguration)    228–230
subnet router anycast address    30
successful disaster recovery    12
supplement, online    VII
support level    81–82
support, kernel, IPv6    13–16
switchover, great    8
SYN flag (TCP)    99
synchronization, time (NTP)    89–91
sysctl command (Debian, FreeBSD)    15
sysklogd (Linux)    91
syslog
      configuration    12
      IPv6 support    91–92
      packet filter    99
      proxy    132
syslog-ng (Linux)    91
syslogd daemon    91–92

TC (traffic class) field (base header, QoS)    31, 328
TCP (packet filter)    99–100
TCP (transmission control protocol)    7
TCP/IP offload engine (TOE)    115
TCP/IP stack    6
tcpdump (packet sniffer)    12
TCPv6    7
telephony, IP    6
temporary address configuration    36–38
temporary addresses    216–220
tentative address (autoconfiguration)    51
Teredo tunnel    182–183
termcap syntax (rtadvd)    224
test environment, setting up a    10–12
tethereal (packet sniffer)    12
thesis, PhD    VI
Thicknet    10
time synchronization (NTP)    89–91
time to live (TTL) field (IPv4 header)    32, 193, 196
time to live (TTL, DNS)    349
TLS (transport layer security)    93
TOE (TCP/IP offload engine)    115
top-level domain (DNS)    349
TOS (type of service, IPv4 header)    31
totd (trick-or-treat daemon)    138–140
traceroute/traceroute6 command    11
traffic class (TC) field (base header, QoS)    31, 328
traffic shaping (QoS)    328–329
transaction signature (TSIG, dynamic DNS)    301, 303
transcript, shell    VIII
transient multicast address    29
translation, protocol    135–140
transmission control protocol (TCP)    7
transport layer    7
transport layer security (TLS)    93
transport mode (IPsec)    312
transport relay translation (TRT)    136
treacherous feeling of security (NAT)    10
trick-or-treat daemon (totd)    138–140
triggered update (RIPng)    112
TRT (transport relay translation)    136
TSIG (transaction signature, dynamic DNS)    301, 303
TTL (time to live) field (IPv4 header)    32, 193, 196
TTL (time to live, DNS)    349
tunnel   (see 4in6, 6in4, 6in6, 6to4, automatic tunnel, configured tunnel, encapsulation)
      6over4    176–177
      broker    189–190
      choosing the proper type    147
      concepts    143–144
      encapsulation limit    194
      entry point    144
      exit point    144
      gif<n> interface (FreeBSD)    153,  170, 173
      GRE (generic routing encapsulation)    181–182, 187
      gre<n> interface (FreeBSD)    182
      hop limit field (base header)    196–197
      inner protocol    143
      ip.6to4tun<n> interface (Solaris) 161
      ip.atun0 interface (Solaris)    158
      ip.tun<n> interface (Solaris) 154
      ip6.tun<n> interface (Solaris) 171, 173
      IPv6-in-UDP-in-IPv4    190
      ISATAP (intra-site automatic tunnel addressing protocol) 177
      loop    193–195
      maximum transmission unit (MTU)    195–196
      meltdown    193
      mixing with native connections    197–198
      nesting    146, 193–195
      network meltdown    193
      OpenVPN    183–187
      operational issues    145–146
      outer protocol    143
      packet filter considerations    177–180, 187
      parameter tuning    195–197
      routing through    156–158
      scenarios    145
      secure architectures    178–179
      security    146, 159, 177–180, 187
      service provider    9, 189–190
      sit<n> interface (Linux)    152
      sit0 interface (Linux)    158
      stf0 interface (FreeBSD)    161
      Teredo    182–183
      terminology    143–144
      through NAT    190–193
      time to live (TTL) field (IPv4 header)    196–197
      TTL (time to live) field (IPv4 header)    196–197
      types    144–145
tunnel host    143
tunnel layer    150
tunnel mode (IPsec)    312
tunnel node    143
tunnel router    143
type 2 routing header (MIPv6)    321
type of service (TOS, IPv4 header)    31
typographic conventions    VIII–X

UDP (packet filter)    99–101
UDP (user datagram protocol)    7
unicast address    25–29
      global scope    28
      link-local    26
      site-local (deprecated)    27–28, 211–214
      unique-local    27–28, 211–214
unicast routing    103–124, 233–262
unicast routing, dynamic and static    118–119
unicast routing, static and dynamic    118–119
unicast-prefix-based multicast    285–286
uniform resource locator (URL)    93–94
unique-local unicast addresses    27–28, 211–214
unprivileged mode (Quagga VTY)    239
unqualified domain name (DNS)    350
unsolicited response (RIPng)    112
unsolicited router advertisement (RA, autoconfiguration) 45, 53
unspecified address    42
update, online    VI
upper layer positive confirmation (NUD)    41
upstream interface (multicast)    264
URL (uniform resource locator)    93–94
USAGI project (Linux)    VI
user datagram protocol (UDP)    7
userland PPP    199

valid address (autoconfiguration)    51
valid lifetime (vltime, autoconfiguration)    52
van Pelt, Pim    X
/var/log/debug    12
variable length subnet mask (VLSM, IPv4)    103
variables, kernel    15–16
version field (base header)    31
virtual interface    25
virtual link (OSPF)    259
virtual machine    VII, 11, 12, 272
virtual private network (VPN)    145, 183, 312
virtual terminal (Quagga)    239–240
virtual terminal (VTY, Quagga)    234
virtualized environment    VII, 11, 12, 272
VLSM (variable length subnet mask, IPv4)    103
vltime (valid lifetime, autoconfiguration)    52
VMware    VII, 11, 12
VMware, problems with multicasts    272
VoIP (voice over IP)    6
VPN (virtual private network)    145, 183, 312
VTY (Quagga)    239–240
VTY (virtual terminal, Quagga)    234
vtysh command shell (Quagga)    261

watchquagga daemon (Quagga)    261
web browser    94
web proxy    95–97
web server    94–95
Wget (web browser)    94
whatis index    11
wildcard route (*,G) (multicast)    264
Windows, Microsoft    VI
Wireshark (packet sniffer)    12
WWW (world wide web)    93–97

X.509 certificate (IPsec)    314
Xen    VII, 11, 12
xinetd daemon    82–85

Zebra (routing framework)    233
zebra daemon (Quagga)    109–111, 234
Zenker, Wolfgang    X
zone delegation (DNS)    350, 356
zone index (was: scope ID)    27
© 2003—2013 Benedikt Stockebrand[2013-12-20 14:25:52 UTC]